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Note Perceptions of the police and feelings of personal safety are also explored. Where possible, analysis of data collected in the and GSS on Victimization cycles is included to allow for comparisons over time. Beginning insuccessive Supreme Court of Canada rulings and Acts of Parliament have enshrined in law the rights of those who identify as lesbian, gay and bisexual and protection from discrimination, harassment and violence motivated by hate Government of Canada The General Social Survey GSS on Victimization measures violent victimization with respect to three offences—sexual assault, robbery and physical assault Text box 2.
Sexual orientation: Refers to how a person perceives and defines their sexuality, which is whether she or he considers herself or himself to be heterosexual, lesbian and gay, or bisexual. The need to collect data Bi safe free naked chat on 85 sexual orientation stems from issues related to human rights including experiences of victimization and discrimination. This information is required to better understand a wide range of issues that affect this population.
This was limited to heterosexual, lesbian and gay, and bisexual orientations. Violent victimization: Includes incidents of sexual assault, robbery and physical assault. Sexual assault: Includes forced sexual activity; attempted forced sexual activity; unwanted sexual touching; unwanted grabbing, kissing or fondling; and sexual relations without being able to give consent due to drugs, intoxication, manipulation or being forced in other ways than physically.
Robbery: Includes thefts and attempted thefts in which the offender had a weapon or there was violence or the threat of violence against the victim.
According to the GSS on Victimization, those who identified as lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB were ificantly more likely to report experiencing violent victimization than those who identified as heterosexual. Inoverall, there were more thanE incidents of violent victimization involving a bisexual victim and more than 49, E incidents involving a lesbian or gay victim, corresponding to rates of E and E incidents per 1, population, respectively Chart 1. For example, inbisexual Canadians were almost nine times more likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report experiencing sexual assault E versus 17 incidents per 1, population.
Note There were no statistically ificant differences between the rates of physical assault for heterosexual and LGB individuals Table 1. While the GSS is deed to produce overall victimization rates and risk factors for personal victimization, many specific details about the victimization incidents i.
Note As a result, analysis of some incident characteristics is limited for the LGB population due to overall sample size, despite LGB Canadians being at greater risk of violent victimization. Research to date has found that age is a factor related to higher rates of victimization.
Young people are more often associated with a lifestyle that involves greater exposure to risky situations and behaviours Perreault and Brennan ; Cohen and Felson When considering the age distribution of the Canadian population, LGB individuals tend to be ificantly younger than their heterosexual counterparts Table 2. Inthe median age for heterosexual Canadians was 47 years old while the median age for LGB Canadians was 36 years old. More specifically, the median ages for lesbian and gay individuals and bisexual individuals were 41 and 32 years old, respectively.
Note In other words, the fact that LGB Canadians are, on average, younger than heterosexual Canadians explains some, but not all, of the difference in victimization rates between these two populations. According to the GSS on Victimization, overall, women aged 18 years and older experienced violent victimization at a higher rate than men, regardless of their sexual orientation 81 versus 64 incidents per 1, population.
Prior analysis of the GSS shows that even when controlling for other factors, individuals who identified as LGB were more than twice as likely to be sexually assaulted as those who identified as heterosexual Conroy and Cotter Further, bisexual women were four times more likely to report experiencing violent victimization E versus 75 incidents per 1, population and seven times more likely to report experiencing sexual assault E versus 29 incidents per 1, population than their heterosexual counterparts in the 12 months preceding the survey.
To for certain characteristics and experiences that can influence the odds of violent victimization, a regression model was created. The model ed for different factors related to victimization, such as age, history of childhood abuse, history of homelessness, visible minority status, and marital status, in addition to sexual orientation. Even when controlling for these other factors, the odds of violent victimization among LGB Canadians were 2 times higher than among heterosexual Canadians Model 1. The difference in the rate of violent victimization for bisexual Canadians between and was not statistically ificant.
Among those who reported living in census metropolitan areas, bisexual and lesbian and gay individuals were over three times and two times more likely, respectively, to report experiencing violent victimization than their heterosexual counterparts E and E versus 71 incidents per 1, population. Characteristics of violent incidents were generally similar, regardless of sexual orientation. In research, an increased of evening activities has been linked to a Bi safe free naked chat on 85 risk of violent victimization Cohen and Felson ; Miethe and Meier ; Perreault ; Stein According to the General Social Survey GSS on Victimization, bisexual individuals were ificantly more likely than heterosexual individuals to report having over 30 evening activities for example working, attending night classes or participating in social activities Bi safe free naked chat on 85 month.
Prior research suggests that people who experience homelessness in their lifetime are more likely to experience violent victimization Wenzel et al. Model 1 shows that the odds of violent victimization are about three times higher among those who reported experiencing homelessness at some point during their lifetime.
According to the GSS on Victimization, bisexual individuals were far less likely than their heterosexual counterparts to report their violent victimization to the police. Reasons for not reporting to the police were similar regardless of sexual orientation. Lesbian and gay individuals most likely to experience discrimination based on sexual orientation. Note Other common reasons included discrimination on the basis of physical appearance and sex Table 4. These were the most common environments in which discrimination was perceived, regardless of sexual orientation.
Meanwhile, those who identified as bisexual were slightly more worried about their safety when home alone at night, walking alone in their neighbourhood at night and using public transportation alone at night. The current study found notable differences in the rates of violent victimization between lesbian, gay and bisexual LGB and heterosexual Canadians, in addition to differences between LGB groups.
Bisexual individuals experienced violent victimization at a rate nearly double that of lesbian and gay individuals E versus E. Even after controlling for other factors, the odds of experiencing violent victimization were two times higher among LGB Canadians compared to heterosexual Canadians.
The LGB population tends to be much younger than the heterosexual population, and young age has been consistently associated with a higher risk of violent victimization. While controlling for differences in age somewhat narrowed this gap, rates of violent victimization remained higher among LGB Canadians.
Of note, bisexual Canadian women saw markedly higher rates of sexual assault compared with all other groups E. Canadians who identified as bisexual were less likely than their heterosexual counterparts to: report being satisfied with their personal safety from crime; report feeling a strong sense of belonging to their community; and rate the police as doing a good job in their communities.
It is important to note that along with higher rates of violent victimization seen among bisexual Canadians, they were more likely to report experiencing some form of homelessness during their lifetime, which may in itself pose as a risk factor for violent victimization Perreault Table 1 Rates of violent victimization, by sexual orientation, sex and type of offence, Canada, Table 2 Age distribution, by sexual orientation and sex, Canada, Table 3 Victimization Bi safe free naked chat on 85, by sexual orientation and type of offence, Canada,and Table 4 Experiences of discrimination, by sexual orientation, Canada, Table 5 Perceptions of the criminal justice system, by sexual orientation, Canada, Model 1 Logistic regression: Risk of violent victimization, by characteristics, Canada, cycles were conducted in,and Once a Bi safe free naked chat on 85 was selected and contacted by phone, an individual 15 years or older was randomly selected to respond to the survey.
An oversample of immigrants and youth was added to the GSS for a more detailed analysis of these groups. As with any household survey, there are some data limitations. The are based on a sample and are therefore subject to sampling errors. Somewhat different might have been obtained if the entire population had been surveyed. This article uses the coefficient of variation CV as a measure of the sampling error. Estimates with a high CV over In these cases, the symbol "F" is used in place of an estimate in the figures and data tables.
Estimates with a CV between The influence of a factor is indicated by the odds ratio, which should be read in relation to the reference category. To make the easier to read, these regressions model the probability of being a victim of violent crime. An odds ratio greater than 1 indicates that the characteristic increases the odds for the variable of interest in this case, being a victim of violent crime and an odds ratio lower than 1 indicates that the odds decrease. One regression model was conducted to examine characteristics influencing the odds of experiencing violent victimization among Canadians aged 18 years and older.
Only variables that proved ificant in the multivariate analysis were retained in the final model presented in this report. The discarded variables included sex, immigrant status, aboriginal status, main activity and drug use. These variables did not increase or decrease the odds of experiencing violent victimization.
Beauchamp, D. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. Cohen, L. Conroy, S. Gaudet, M. Government of Canada. Miethe, T. Perreault, S. Statistics Canada. Behind the Data. Stein, R. Teasdale, B. Wenzel, S. Leake and L. Canada owes the success of its statistical system to a long-standing partnership between Statistics Canada, the citizens of Canada, its businesses, governments and other institutions.
Accurate and timely statistical information could not be produced without their continued co-operation and goodwill. Statistics Canada is committed to serving its clients in a prompt, reliable and courteous manner. To this end, the Agency has developed standards of service which its employees observe in serving its clients. All rights reserved. Please and let us know how we can help you. Violent victimization of lesbians, gays and bisexuals in Canada, by Laura Simpson.
Release date: May 31, Even after controlling for other factors such as age, marital status, past history of homelessness, and childhood abuse, the odds of being a victim of violent victimization were two times higher among lesbian, gay or bisexual Canadians than among their heterosexual counterparts. Compared with heterosexual Canadians, bisexual individuals were almost nine times more likely to be sexually assaulted E Bi safe free naked chat on 85 17 incidents per 1, population in the 12 months.
The information is grouped by Sexual orientation appearing as row headersrate per 1, population appearing as column headers. ISSN: Report a problem on this. Is something not working? Is there information outdated? Can't find what you're looking for? Privacy notice.Bi safe free naked chat on 85
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